If sometime something does not work...
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Ceiling fan has a single phase induction motor assembled in it. A single phase induction motor has similar speed-torque characteristics, as that of a 3-phase, only difference is in starting torque. In this case, we dont get any starting torque & so capacitive split phase starting method is applied in this case. So while starting, single phase supply is splitted in two phases, almost 90 degrees out of phase with each other to get a rotating flux & hence a finite starting torque. In regulators for speed control, SCR triacs are used nowadays (instead of rheostats) to change the firing angles of voltage supply to the fan.
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I know that these questions have been answered already, but I want to add something more. In conventional ceiling fans, the single-phase induction motor is used. These motors consume minimum power and hence, are also known as fractional kilowatt motors. A single-phase induction motor requires only one power phase for operating. It converts the electrical energy from the power input into mechanical energy. You can check https://www.lightsonline.com/ceiling-light-fixture and ask their staff how a ceiling fan works. They will answer your question and help you choose what's best for you.